The period between 1760 - 1820/1840.
The transition from a worker-based cottage industry a to machine-based economy, with the growth of factories and mass production, is traditionally known as the Industrial Revolution, which began in England and brought about the most fundamental changes to society since the development of agriculture thousands of years earlier. Accompanying the Industrial Revolution was a massive growth in energy consumption, largely through the burning of coal, a fossil fuel.
Rapid growth in industrialisation began in the late 18th century, the period often considered as the start of the Industrial Revolution.
By the late 18th century and first part of the 19th century, coal came into large-scale use during the Industrial Revolution. The resulting smog and soot had serious health impacts on the residents of growing urban centers. In the Great Smog of 1952, pollutants from factories and home fireplaces mixed with air condensation killed at least 4,000 people in London over the course of several days. A few years earlier, in 1948, severe industrial air pollution created a deadly smog that asphyxiated 20 people in Donora, Pennsylvania, and made 7,000 more sick. Acid rain, first discovered in the 1850s, was another problem resulting from coal-powered plants. The release of human-produced sulfur and nitrogen compounds into the atmosphere negatively impacted plants, fish, soil, forests and some building materials.